The Electoral College. And Why It Matters.

With the crazy events that happened on November 8th, we are seeing even crazier posts on social media. One such thing is how people are signing a petition directed towards the members of the Electoral College to elect Hilary Clinton as president. The majority of these people saying to abolish the Electoral College, or those who are calling on it to completely ignore the results of the election, I think, are people whom are very misinformed.

First, to change who wins the election based off of the popular vote, because of a petition no less, sends the completely wrong message to the world, and also completely undermines our electoral process. Many, many people think we live in a democracy. This, is wrong. We are a Federal Republic, because of, well, the Electoral College.

The Electoral College was and is absolutely genius. Our forefathers thought of a way to make sure that we remain united as states when it comes time to elect a president. The reason why I think the Electoral College is so genius, is because of how it gives states that are less populous still a significant say in an election. It keeps the voting proportional, as opposed to allowing the most populus states only having a say that affects the entire country.

I know a common argument against the Electoral College is that when states elect their governor, it is one vote per person, and whomever accumulates the most votes wins. That is an absolutely stellar approach when it comes to one state. Whomever Massachusetts elects for governor does not impact who North Dakota elects. However, when we talk about the president, the states with less people need to have a proportionally equal say in who the leader of the free world will be.

The Constitution says, in Article II, Section I, Clause 2, “Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress.”

So lets break that down. California has 55 electoral votes. It has a population of 38.8 million people. That breaks down to 705,454 persons per electoral vote. Now lets take a look at North Dakota. They get three electoral votes and it has a population of 739,482 (thank you Google). Therefore, each electoral vote in that state represents 246,494 persons. So what just happened there is it makes the election all proportional to population. It only will take 246,000 people in North Dakota to get one vote while it would take Cali 740,000 people to get one vote. Because Cali has so many more people it should take more people to require a single vote. Whereas if we went off of the popular vote, those 740,000 people in Cali easily dwarf the 246,000 in North Dakota. Essentially North Dakota with their 740,000 people, have become voiceless because of California’s 38 million vastly outweighs them.

As stated before, our CONSTITUTION establishes this thing that people are signing a petition to abolish. It is law. It takes more than a petition of people, who more likely than not, don’t understand the importance of the Electoral College, to abolish something that is laid out in our founding document.

I get that people are upset Clinton lost to Trump, but please refer to my earlier post and Pat’s post. We, the people, are to blame for what happened. Because you can’t accept the results, doesn’t mean you can go trying to undermine something that has been around since the establishment of our nation. Stop trying to undermine the democratic process that occurs every four years on the first Tuesday of November. Accept the facts. Accept loss. It builds character.

If I started a petition for every time I didn’t get my way, I think I would have a room full of half filled out petitions. What happened has happened. It is foolish to think that we should abolish something that keeps us the United States of America. If you want states to face secession from the Union, then by all means, let’s go ahead and get rid of the Electoral College. Let’s go ahead and become Europe with countries the size of Texas or even smaller.

But if you want to remain United, let’s go ahead and stop trying to petition the one thing that makes us so unique to other nations.

6 Comments Add yours

  1. Terry Lewis says:

    I live in Australia, so am at best an interested observer (but right now most of the world are interested observers – very interested). I’m curious as to how those ratios were arrived at. How did they decide that North Dakota would have 3 votes and California have 55? Is that ratio set it stone or is reviewed every now and then? Just curious (and by the way I totally agree with you about the petition)

    Like

    1. Patrick Baga says:

      Hi Terry,

      I’ll jump in for Doogie. The electoral college votes are your 2 Senators + the number of congressmen/women you have in the House of Representatives (equivalent to the number of congressional districts in your state). So every state is guaranteed at least 3 electoral votes (thus giving credence to the argument that smaller states have a disproportionately larger influence on the presidency than their population would afford them if the electoral votes were just based off population alone & didn’t include the automatic +2 for your 2 Senators). The average congressional district in the U.S. has 700,000 people in it, but this does fluctuate, and every decade in accord with the consensus the number of congressional districts in a state can be amended if change in population makes it reasonable to do so.

      Needless to say it’s hotly debated, especially when the result differs from the popular vote. Like I said, it gives smaller states greater influence (typically Republican states), but equally without it candidates would probably just campaign in the most populous states. In theory, the electoral college system should make it so that candidates have to at least pay lip service to the interests of all Americans, even those living in less-populous rural areas. The reality seems to be that there are roughly 20 loyal Dem states, 20 loyal Republican states, and 10 or so swing states that will continue to decide our elections.

      Liked by 1 person

      1. Terry Lewis says:

        Thanks for your detailed answer Patrick

        Liked by 1 person

    2. Uncle Doogs says:

      Hi Terry,

      Thanks for the read, much appreciated. It definitely is an interesting system and approach to how it is all structured as Pat laid out. And just like he said, it is hotly debated, but I think at the end of the day it’s truly an important piece in the intricacies that makes the U.S. who we are.

      Liked by 1 person

  2. John Mayor says:

    A-M-E-R-I-C-A-N D-E-M-O-C-R-A-C-Y I-S D-E-A-D!
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    This nigh finished U.S. Federal Election, is a testament to the fact!… to the reality!… that American “Democracy”, is D-E-A-D! That is, if American “Democracy” E-V-E-R W-A-S a staple of American Politics!… of American Elections!
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    There are a few details that most wanna-be and would-be supporters of “D-E-M-O-C-R-A-C-Y” should be made aware of! And!… the question to be asked of American voters re this recent Election, is:… DID MOST AMERICANS ACTUALLY DESIRE A HILLARY… OR A DONALD!… ON E-I-T-H-E-R S-I-D-E OF THE POLITICAL SPECTRUM?
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    If I may!… I would like us to reflect on what’s really happened here!… and, on what really counts! Was this “democratic vote” more “P-S-E-U-D-O-D-E-M-O-C-R-A-T-I-C”, than not?… and!… did the “T-R-U-E M-A-J-O-R-I-T-Y” of the people of America find their “wills” reflected in this “democratic election”?… or!… were their “wills”– in fact, and in many cases!– N-O-W-H-E-R-E T-O B-E F-O-U-N-D?
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    Attention America!… newsflash!… Y-O-U D-O-N-‘-T A-C-T-U-A-L-L-Y V-O-T-E F-O-R Y-O-U-R P-R-E-S-I-D-E-N-T!! And “pseudodemocratizing” Presidential Elections has helped to MISLEAD you into believing that Presidential Elections are– PRIMARILY!– to reflect your WILL! Simply put!… T-H-E-Y D-O N-O-T!
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    A brief history of the Electoral College shows just how far the process of selecting the President of the United States has changed from the vision of the “Framers” of the U.S. Constitution… and, from the practices of the early years of the “REPUBLIC”! (For a Constitutional overview of the Electoral College, see, https://www.archives.gov/federal-register/electoral-college/provisions.html )
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    The Electoral College was inspired by the “College of Cardinals”!… which elects the Catholic Pope! Charles Carroll, of Carrollton… the only Catholic signer of the Declaration of Independence!… is credited with its creation! He had authored a distinctive provision in Maryland’s first Constitution, in 1776, that established a body of “popularly elected” “Electors”, who selected the state’s Senators!
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    In 1787, the “Constitutional Convention” adapted a provision, based on Maryland’s, as the basis of the Constitutional method for selecting the President! A key difference between the two, under the Constitutional Principle of “Federalism”, is that the “Electors” do not meet as a whole body, but separately in each state (and the District of Columbia) out of respect for state sovereignty! The expression, “Electoral College”, DOES NOT APPEAR IN THE CONSTITUTION AS A NAME FOR THIS INSTITUTION!… and rightly so, as the Presidential Elections are the collective work of 51 INDIVIDUAL BODIES!
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    Because of current practices for selecting the President, those who recognize that Electoral Votes are more than a kind of “point-scoring system” that evens out the weight of the states, such often think that the Presidential and Vice Presidential Electors (the members of what popularly became known as the Electoral College!) “check” the people! However, the history of their Offices reveals that Electors were intended more as “REPRESENTATIVES” of the people, and the states!
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    Indeed!… it’s A-L-L A-B-O-U-T “REPRESENTING” the People, and the States!
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    In creating Electors as the method of selecting the President, the Framers chose neither DIRECT POPULAR ELECTION (through “One Voter, One Vote”!), nor ELECTION BY THE CONGRESS (both methods, some had favored!)!… but– instead!– established a method that was “REPRESENTATIVE” of the people, and the states! Except for the later provision of Electors for the District of Columbia, the allocation of these Electors matches that of the combined number of members of both Chambers of Congress!
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    The number of “REPRESENTATIVES” in the House is based upon POPULATION!… because they are elected to “REPRESENT” the PEOPLE!… while an equal number of Senators “REPRESENTS” each state, in the Senate! Therefore, the size of the Electoral College is the result of a C-O-M-P-R-O-M-I-S-E, that– like the Congress!– balances population with “state equality”!… and!… in keeping with Federalism!
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    Similarly, the composition of the Electoral College helps prevent (so said!) the larger states from dominating the smaller ones! Beyond the composition of the Electoral College, the role of the states in choosing the “Presider” over the union of the states (i.e., the President!), is preserved through the power of state legislatures!… who choose the Electors, by whatever means they decide (and, even by way of making the office of Elector, “Elective”!)!
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    The Framers O-P-P-O-S-E-D DEMOCRACY (i.e., D-I-R-E-C-T R-U-L-E of the P-E-O-P-L-E!)!… preferring, “REPRESENTATIVE” R-E-P-U-B-L-I-C-A-N G-O-V-E-R-N-M-E-N-T! Membership in the House of Representatives was THE O-N-L-Y Constitutional Office the Framers established that was elected “P-O-P-U-L-A-R-L-Y”!… and the President, Vice President, and the Senators were, themselves, not DIRECTLY ELECTED under the original terms of the Constitution! Even the Offices of Presidential and Vice Presidential Electors were not necessarily “Elective”!… and!… could be “Appointive”!
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    Therefore, the only two Federal Offices the Framers established that c-o-u-l-d be Elective, were both “REPRESENTATIVE” in nature! Like Senators, state legislatures APPOINTED Electors to– primarily!– “REPRESENT” the states!… while “Elective Electors” are more “REPRESENTATIVE” of the people! Nevertheless, in both cases, the Electors (like Congress!… as a whole!) “REPRESENT” both the people, and the states!
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    In fact!… many Framers didn’t want a DEMOCRACY, A-T A-L-L!!
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    Like any “REPRESENTATIVES”, Presidential and Vice Presidential Electors are supposed to exercise their judgment (in good conscience!) about what is in the best interests of the Union, the states, and, the people! Since the method of selecting a President is not based– primarily!– on the “WILL OF THE PEOPLE”, an Elector who carries out one’s duty as a “REPRESENTATIVE”, is– thus!– not a “F-A-I-T-H-L-E-S-S E-L-E-C-T-O-R (as the longstanding expression goes!)”, but, a “F-A-I-T-H-F-U-L-L E-L-E-C-T-O-R”! That is to say!… one who has lived up to one’s “REPRESENTATIVE/ REPRESENTATIONAL ROLE”!
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    We can also observe this REPRESENTATIVE/ REPRESENTATIONAL ROLE of the Presidential and Vice Presidential Electors, in the state laws of the early period of the REPUBLIC, re the selection of these Electors! Some state legislatures opted, at first, to APPOINT their Presidential and Vice Presidential Electors!… others, allowing these to be “Popularly Elected”! A few, even alternated between “Presidential Elections”, to “Presidential Appointments”! Gradually, all of the states adopted “Popular Elections”!… but!… and with South Carolina as the last holdout!… the first “Presidential Election” in which all of the Electors were “P-O-P-U-L-A-R-L-Y E-L-E-C-T-E-D”, was in 1868!
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    However!… and for extraordinary reasons!… Electors have been APPOINTED on subsequent occasions!
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    States retain the power to set aside Electors’ Elections, even after they have been Elected!… and can Appoint them instead! Even though the states exercise their discretion to allow the “people” to Elect the Electors to “REPRESENT” them, it is important to remember, that this “REPRESENTATION” occurs, ONLY THROUGH THE POWER OF THE STATES!
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    In the “Federal Period”, the “people” DIRECTLY ELECTED the Electors who were not “Appointed”!… unlike the current practice, in which voters Elect them INDIRECTLY by casting ballots for Presidential and Vice Presidential Candidates, that count for an unnamed slate of Electors the Presidential Candidates have nominated! In some states… currently!… the ballot does not even mention that the Election is only for the Electors these Candidates have nominated!… which M-I-S-L-E-A-D-S people even more into believing they are voting DIRECTLY for the President, and the Vice President!
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    The REPRESENTATIONAL ROLE of the Electoral College was, thus, clearer in the ORIGINAL METHOD of DIRECT ELECTION, than today’s method (in which… today!… it is “popularly believed” that the Presidential Election is essentially a “democratic exercise”, and that the purpose of the Electors, is– mainly!– to even out the strength of the states!)!
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    Not only did these EARLY METHODS of selecting Presidential and Vice Presidential Electors emphasize their REPRESENTATIONAL ROLE, but common practices at the time, did as well! It is critical to understand, that in the first several decades of the American REPUBLIC, no one personally “Campaigned” for President, Vice President, or any other Political Office!… including, even Presidential and Vice Presidential Electors! The popular belief at the time, was that seeking Office would be arrogant!… as, “the Office seeks the man!… not the man, the office!”
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    The similarity between the Electoral College and the College of Cardinals was more noticeable back then!… as no one “publicly Campaigns” to be Elected Pope!… and the selection– today!– sometimes surprises the public, whenever a relatively less known person is selected! And there were especially no “Political Campaigns” in the EARLY REPUBLIC, in the modern sense of this expression!… save, informal public debate through conversations among the population, and the Political invocation of the “expressive freedom” of the “print press”! And it was not until 1840, that anyone personally “Campaigned” for President, or Vice President, of the United States!
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    Before the rise of “political parties”, there were– originally!– NO NAMES ON BALLOTS FOR “OFFICES”! There were only “write-in votes”! Later!… “parties” united behind “Candidates”, whose names were placed onto “Election Ballots”!… through changes, to Election Laws! Similarly!… at the Electoral College!… there were only “write-in votes” for President, and Vice President!
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    A reaction against the REPRESENTATIONAL ROLE of the Electoral College contributed to the foundation of the “Democratic Party”! In 1824, the Elective Presidential and Vice Presidential Electors for Andrew Jackson, and his “runningmate”, respectively won the “popular vote” among the four main Candidates! None of the Presidential Candidates won a majority in the Electoral College!… although, Jackson earned a PLURALITY! The House of Representatives elected John Quincy Adams!… whose Electors had earned the second most popular votes, and the second most votes in the Electoral College!
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    Jackson, and his supporters, believed that this deprived their Candidate of the Office that these believed that he had rightfully earned!… and so, the Democratic Party, was formed! As their party’s name implies, “Democrats” believed in making Elections more DEMOCRATIC, in various ways!… including, eliminating– or, at least, reducing!– the role of the Electoral College!
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    Although the “Democrats” did not eliminate the Electoral College altogether, after winning the 1828 Elections, they “democratized” Elections in other ways!… and advanced the trend away from the Framers’ original vision for Presidential and Vice Presidential Electors!… and especially, by– increasingly!– blurring the distinction between electing Electors, and electing the President and Vice President! The trends which have weakened the Electoral College’s REPRESENTATIONAL ROLE, were maintained when states made the “Office of Elector” ELECTIVE!… and BOUND Electors nominated by the Presidential and Vice Presidential Candidates, to vote for those Candidates (instead, of allowing the Electors to be “FREE” to exercise their OWN JUDGEMENT!)!
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    However!… this “democratization” only helped to MISLEAD the people into believing that Presidential Elections were– PRIMARILY!– supposed to reflect their WILL (and, because, many people perceived they were voting DIRECTLY for the Candidates for President and Vice President whose names appeared on the ballots!… but, instead, were only casting ballots for electors!)! Others!… who had at least some awareness of the Electoral College!… believed that they were INDIRECTLY ELECTING the President and Vice President by voting for the Presidential and Vice Presidential Candidates, who, would then– necessarily!– win the votes of the Electors from their states (since the Electors were nominated by the Presidential Candidates!), and were often bound to vote for them by state law!
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    However, contrary to common parlance and belief, unless one is an Elector, or U.S. REPRESENTATIVE, N-O O-N-E V-O-T-E-S F-O-R P-R-E-S-I-D-E-N-T A-N-D V-I-C-E P-R-E-S-I-D-E-N-T! No “Presidential ticket” receives any “POPULAR VOTES”! As envisioned by the Framers, a person need not personally Campaign!… be named on any ballot!… and receive any “popular votes”, for members of the Electoral College to elect him, or her, President of the United States! These Electoral College members, themselves, are not– necessarily!– ELECTED!… or!… even if they were, these need not have personally Campaigned for Office… and!… these need not have appeared on any ballot!
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    Although the Electoral College is “PERCEIVED” nowadays as a “check” on the “popular will”, the origin and early history of this institution suggests the Presidential Election was never intended to be, primarily, a “D-E-M-O-C-R-A-T-I-C E-X-E-R-C-I-S-E”!… but, rather, an exercise in REPRESENTATIVE/ REPRESENTATIONAL R-E-P-U-B-L-I-C-A-N G-O-V-E-R-N-A-N-C-E! And so… restoring the role of the Electors as REPRESENTATIVES of the states, and the people, would NOT usurp the HISTORIC VIEW of the WILL of the people!… but, instead, would return Americans to the “vision” of the Framers of the U.S. Constitution! The problem, though, is that such a move would be W-H-O-L-L-Y U-N-D-E-M-O-C-R-A-T-I-C!… AND!… W-O-U-L-D P-E-R-P-E-T-U-A-T-E T-H-E P-O-L-I-T-I-C-A-L A-B-U-S-E O-F T-H-E E-L-E-C-T-O-R-A-T-E, B-Y “R-E-P-U-B-L-I-C-A-N_M-I-N-D-E-D O-L-I-G-A-R-C-H-S”!
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    But!… however DIABOLIC one might perceive the present Electoral College to be to the “Principals of Democracy”, none of this compares to the DIABOLIC nature inhere within “democracies (so-called!)” which adhere to DIRECT ELECTIONS, and which have adopted a “One Voter, One Vote” system to elect Candidates into Office! And I’ll demonstrate this, by revealing the I-N-S-A-N-I-T-Y that was, the Brexit vs Bremain referendum!
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    How is it “DEMOCRATIC”– e.g.!– when the Brexit Referendum “win” of Thursday, June 23rd, 2016, was “won” W-I-T-H-O-U-T the E-S-S-E-N-T-I-A-L M-I-N-I-M-U-M of 50+% of the T-O-T-A-L N-U-M-B-E-R of ELIGIBLE BRITISH VOTERS’ VOTES?… AND!… NOT JUST, BY WAY OF A MAJORITY OF THOSE WHO’VE DECIDED TO CAST A VOTE! In other words, how can L-E-S-S than the E-S-S-E-N-T-I-A-L M-I-N-I-M-U-M of 50+% of the T-O-T-A-L N-U-M-B-E-R of eligible British voters’ votes, constitute a “D-E-M-O-C-R-A-T-I-C P-L-U-R-A-L-I-T-Y”? It is– de facto!– I-M-P-O-S-S-I-B-L-E (i.e., without God!)! And thus, the Brexit vote is a further example of a “P-S-E-U-D-O-D-E-M-O-C-R-A-T-I-C P-S-E-U-D-O-P-L-U-R-A-L-I-T-Y” “winning the day”!
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    To compare the Brexit Referendum to an election of a Candidate within a Electoral District… if fifty thousand eligible voters decide not to vote in a District that is composed/ comprised of one hundred thousand eligible voters… and five Candidates are running!… the math would suggest, that no Candidate could possibly obtain a “D-E-M-O-C-R-A-T-I-C P-L-U-R-A-L-I-T-Y” from the remaining fifty thousand eligible voters who have cast a vote! Unless!… and of course!… A H-I-J-A-C-K-E-D, AND E-L-I-T-I-S-T P-O-L-I-T-I-C-A-L P-R-O-C-E-S-S SIMPLY MARGINALIZES THOSE WHO HAVE NOT SHOWN UP TO VOTE; AND, THEN, DICTATES THAT THEIR “NO SHOW”/ ABSENCE, CANNOT– AND SHOULD NOT!– BE HELD “B-I-N-D-I-N-G” IN SOME FASHION, OR FORM (AND SOME “NO SHOWS” ARE AS SUCH, DUE TO DISABILITY, AND/ OR INFIRMITY!… NOT TO MENTION, THOSE WHO HAVE BEEN SYSTEMICALLY AND SYSTEMATICALLY DISCRIMINATED AGAINST, DUE TO THEIR Y-O-U-T-H!)! FOR!… OUT OF SIGHT, IS OUT OF MIND!
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    Simply put!… and to return to the Brexit Referendum!… the said total of 17,410,742. “winning” “pro Brexit” British voters, plus the said total of 16,141,242. “losing” “pro Bremain” eligible British voters, who– together!– showed up at the “Referendum ballot boxes (i.e., 33,551,984 eligible British voters!)”, are in contrast to the ACTUAL TOTAL of 46,499,537 eligible British voters (see Google result, Electoral Commission | Provisional electorate figures published!… AND, LET ALONE, THE EVEN HIGHER ACTUAL TOTAL NUMBER OF ELIGIBLE VOTERS’ VOTES TO BE HAD, IF MANY OF THE DISABLED/ INFIRMED BRITISH CITIZENS WERE “ACCOMMODATED”!… AND!… IF MANY BRITISH YOUTH WEREN’T THE TARGETS OF “P-O-L-I-T-I-C-A-L A-N-D S-O-C-I-A-L P-A-T-E-R-N-A-L-I-S-T-I-C A-G-E-I-S-M”!)!… and reveals a deficit of 12,947,553. of the ACTUAL TOTAL NUMBER of eligible British voters, and a deficit of 5,839,027. eligible British voters for even a “B-A-R-E M-I-N-I-M-U-M M-A-J-O-R-I-T-Y W-I-N (i.e., 46,499,537. ÷ 2 = 23,249,768.5… + .5 = [23,249,769.] – 17,410,742. = 5,839,027.!)”! AND THEREFORE, THE COMBINED “WINNERS” AND “LOSERS” TALLY OF ELIGIBLE VOTERS, S-H-O-U-L-D N-O-T B-E M-A-D-E S-Y-N-O-N-Y-M-O-U-S W-I-T-H T-H-E A-C-T-U-A-L T-O-T-A-L- N-U-M-B-E-R O-F E-L-I-G-I-B-L-E B-R-I-T-I-S-H V-O-T-E-R-S/ V-O-T-E-S!… AND!… THE “WINNING TALLY”, S-H-O-U-L-D N-O-T B-E M-A-D-E S-Y-N-O-N-Y-M-O-U-S W-I-T-H T-H-E “M-A-J-O-R-I-T-Y W-I-L-L” O-F T-H-E E-L-I-G-I-B-L-E V-O-T-E-R-S O-F B-R-I-T-A-I-N! AND!… THEREFORE!… THE “WINNING TALLY” OF ELIGIBLE BRITISH VOTERS– AT LEAST!– SHOULD BE MET WITH A C-O-N-S-T-I-T-U-T-I-O-N-A-L (AND TORT!) C-H-A-L-L-E-N-G-E (TO START!) FOR THE F-L-A-G-R-A-N-T B-R-E-A-C-H OF THE “L-E-G-I-T-I-M-A-T-E” “P-R-I-N-C-I-P-L-E-S” O-F D-E-M-O-C-R-A-C-Y (I.E., AND E.G., IN THE F-A-I-L-U-R-E OF THE BREXIT REFERENDUM RESULT TOTAL, TO ACHIEVE EVEN A B-A-R-E M-I-N-I-M-U-M M-A-J-O-R-I-T-Y T-A-L-L-Y, FOR A ‘M-A-J-O-R-I-T-Y W-I-N’!)”!
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    And so!… the Brexit “win”… like the “wins” seen so often in our PSEUDODEMOCRATIC PSEUDOELECTIONS (AND EVEN IN ELECTIONS WHEREIN “PLURALITY WINS”– E.G., IN AMERICA!– MIGHT BE FAVORED OVER ELECTORAL COLLEGE “WINS”!)!… I-S A S-H-A-M!! And!… it escapes me, why “plurality-driven citizens” from respective “democracies (so-called!)” from around the world, haven’t challenged these scurrilous, and shameful “F-A-U-X P-U-B-L-I-C R-E-F-E-R-E-N-D-A”!… AND PSEUDOELECTIONS!… AND!… haven’t brought civil proceedings against any and all institutions, which have allowed these G-L-O-B-A-L F-A-R-C-E-S to continue! And thus… re the Brexit Referendum result!… it’s my contention, that the Brexit Referendum is defeatable, due to it’s inherent S-Y-S-T-E-M-I-C V-I-O-L-A-T-I-O-N of the “L-E-G-I-T-I-M-A-T-E” “PRINCIPLES OF DEMOCRACY”!
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    This horrendous situation involving our PSEUDODEMOCRATIC PSEUDOELECTIONS, has resulted in “winning Candidates” winning (if, indeed, Pluralities are recognized!) with as little as 1/5th of the total number of eligible voters’ votes!… AND!… THEN DARING, TO CALL SUCH RESPECTIVE “WINS”, D-E-M-O-C-R-A-T-I-C! A-N-D W-O-R-S-E!… and in the case of the Brexit Referendum result (AND “PSEUDOWIN”!)!… such a “W-I-N” could– POTENTIALLY!– C-O-M-P-R-O-M-I-Z-E T-H-E S-E-C-U-R-I-T-Y O-F A-N E-N-T-I-R-E N-A-T-I-O-N! And so!… it’s no wonder why so many citizens within our respective “democracies (so-called!)” hate the elections process!… and!… hate, Public Referenda!
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    And!… to add Elections insult to Elections injury, there are “Parties” within countries… and again, composed of “winning Candidates” who have “won” with L-E-S-S than the E-S-S-E-N-T-I-A-L M-I-N-I-M-U-M needed for a “D-E-M-O-C-R-A-T-I-C P-L-U-R-A-L-I-T-Y”!… whose leadership cannot be chosen D-E-M-O-C-R-A-T-I-C-A-L-L-Y by the PEOPLE (e.g., in Canada!)!… and O-N-L-Y, by the Party (although, this is not to detract from the serious failings of the Elections Process in America, in the selection of America’s President!)! And further, rather than have the brightest!… the best!… “winning Candidates” from all across a country– and, from across a legislature’s floor!– forming Executive Cabinets (and in Canada– e.g.– composed of Ministers of Federal Departments, or Provincial Ministries!)!… A-N-D T-H-R-O-U-G-H A N-O-N P-A-R-T-Y_B-A-S-E-D L-E-G-I-S-L-A-T-U-R-E O-R P-A-R-L-I-A-M-E-N-T (and something, incidentally, that municipalities have been doing for generations!… A-N-D, W-O-R-L-D-W-I-D-E)!… our current “PARTY-BASED DEMOCRACIES” have chosen, instead– A-N-D V-I-R-T-U-A-L-L-Y!– GANGS, CLIQUES, AND “P-S-E-U-D-O-S-O-C-I-A-L I-N-T-E-R-E-S-T-S”, TO ACT AS “GO-BETWEENS” FOR PARTY-BASED “OLIGARCHIC BACKROOM BOYZ”!
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    But!… if all of this wasn’t bad enough, there’s no “NONE OF THE ABOVE” option on millions of voters’ ballots (AND “B-I-N-D-I-N-G”!… AS A PREREQUISITE!)!… nor, an “AUTOMATIC TRANSLATION” of the “NO SHOWS (i.e., eligible voters who have NOT cast a vote!)” to “B-I-N-D-I-N-G” “NONE OF THE ABOVE BALLOTS (inasmuch, as such ‘NO SHOWS’, can’t be translated as being ‘F-O-R’, any Candidate!)”! (BUT!… PLEASE NOTE!… IF OUR “NO SHOWS” AS SUCH, ARE DUE TO OUR P-O-L-I-T-I-C-A-L A-N-D S-O-C-I-A-L I-N-A-B-I-L-I-T-Y– O-R, U-N-W-I-L-L-I-N-G-N-E-S-S!– TO ADDRESS THE VOTER NEEDS OF OUR DISABLED/ INFIRMED!… AND, OUR YOUTH!… THEN SUCH “INABLED”, OR “UNWILLING”, SHOULD BE “H-E-L-P-E-D” RE THEIR “I-N-A-B-I-L-T-Y”!… OR H-E-L-D T-O A-C-C-O-U-N-T FOR THEIR “U-N-W-I-L-L-I-N-G-N-E-S-S”!) And!… had the “NONE OF THE ABOVE” and the “TRANSLATED NO SHOW” provisions been addressed, many “NO SHOWS” would have shown up to vote (for fear of receiving a MANADATED “BINDING” “AUTOMATIC TRANSLATION”!)! And!… if combined “NO SHOW TRANSLATIONS”, together with directly cast “NONE OF THE ABOVE BALLOTS” were implemented (wherein– TOGETHER!– these OUTNUMBER the votes cast for any respective “running Candidate”!), this combined tally could have meant the introduction of “lottery lists” of Candidates within respective Districts (preselected!… and the members in which, would not be eligible to run as “running Candidates”!)!… from which, our “winners” could have then been chosen! And thereby!… E-F-F-E-C-T-I-N-G F-U-L-L R-E-P-R-E-S-E-N-T-A-T-I-O-N F-O-R E-V-E-R-Y S-I-N-G-L-E E-L-I-G-I-B-L-E V-O-T-E-R, A-N-D V-O-T-E!
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    And!… to juxtapose the just aforesaid template onto Referenda!… and onto the Brexit Referendum, in particular!… if the directly cast “NONE OF THE ABOVE BALLOTS”, combined with the “TRANSLATED NO SHOWS”, OUTWEIGHED the votes cast for either the Brexit or Bremain scenarios, then NEITHER Brexit, nor Bremain, would be– DEMOCRATICALLY!– left on the table! And the MPs of the British Parliament, would then be forced to renew their respective individual approaches, and collective approach, re their “arrangement” with the EU!… and, their respective dialogues, and collective dialogue, with the citizens of Britain!
    .
    And given… and in contrast to the abovenoted!… in the light of the process that was implementated for the Brexit Referendum (though, yet to be revealed “officially”!)!… WELL!… you have the makings of a P-O-O-R E-X-C-U-S-E F-O-R A D-E-M-O-C-R-A-T-I-C R-E-F-E-R-E-N-D-U-M!… A-N-D A P-O-O-R “R-A-T-I-O-N-A-L B-A-S-I-S” F-O-R T-H-E R-E-D-I-R-E-C-T-I-O-N O-F T-H-E F-U-T-U-R-E C-O-U-R-S-E F-O-R A-N E-N-T-I-R-E C-O-U-N-T-R-Y!!
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    And so… what we have, presently, are “P-S-E-U-D-O-D-E-M-O-C-R-A-T-I-C P-L-U-R-A-L-I-T-I-E-S (IF EVEN THESE CAN BE ACHIEVED!… E.G., IN AMERICA!)” IN THE G-U-I-S-E OF “D-E-M-O-C-R-A-T-I-C-A-L-L-Y E-L-E-C-T-E-D” CANDIDATES! An intolerable situation!… and deserving of both Constitutional challenges, and Tort action! And!… A-N-Y O-T-H-E-R ACCEPTED PLURALITY OTHER THAN A “D-E-M-O-C-R-A-T-I-C P-L-U-R-A-L-I-T-Y” ACCEPTED BY A PROSPECTIVE CANDIDATE, AND/ OR BY A PROSPECTIVE VOTER (AND BASED UPON THE “L-E-G-I-T-I-M-A-T-E” “PRINCIPLES OF DEMOCRACY”, AS AFOREMENTIONED!… AND OTHER, THAN ONE INSTITUTED BY GOD!)!, IS A CANDIDATE, OR VOTER, WHO IS EITHER BLIND TO THE “LEGITIMATE” “PRINCIPLES OF DEMOCRACY”, OR WHO IS A TRAITOR TO THE “LEGITIMATE” “PRINCIPLES OF DEMOCRACY”! AND!… WHO IS EITHER BLIND, OR A TRAITOR, TO THE COMMON GOOD OF THE PEOPLE!
    .
    THEREFORE, THE “J-U-S-T ESTABLISHMENT” OF “T-R-U-E DEMOCRATIC PLURALITIES” WITHIN OUR RESPECTIVE REFERENDA, AND ELECTIONS PROCESSES, IS F-U-N-D-A-M-E-N-T-A-L TO THE VERY REALIZATION OF “D-E-M-O-C-R-A-C-Y”!… AND!… WITHOUT WHICH, WE ARE SUBJECT TO MERE OLIGARCHIC WHIM!
    .
    But moreover… and in a cursory examination the outrageous “tentative results” of this nigh past U.S. Election!… at the base of the present reality of the abysmal failure the U.S. “Electoral System” to achieve a “D-E-M-O-C-R-A-T-I-C P-L-U-R-A-L-I-T-Y”, is its failure to facilitate the E-S-S-E-N-T-I-A-L D-E-M-O-C-R-A-T-I-C R-E-Q-U-I-R-E-M-E-N-T of a “D-I-R-E-C-T E-L-E-C-T-I-O-N”, through a “O-N-E V-O-T-E-R, O-N-E V-O-T-E” Elections System (LET ALONE, THE NEED TO FACILITATE– A-N-D T-O B-I-N-D!– “NONE OF THE ABOVE BALLOT OPTIONS”, AND TO TRANSLATE ALL “NO SHOWS” TO “NONE OF THE ABOVE”!)! Opting, instead, for an U-N-D-E-M-O-C-R-A-T-I-C Electoral College!… with Electors, and INDIRECT Electoral Votes!
    .
    Consequently… and given the astounding and perverse “win” by Donald Trump– due to the Electoral College– in part!… numerous Petitions have now emerged online– at least!– to challenge, and to eliminate the Electoral College! To many– and I suggest, MOST!– Americans, Trump becoming the “President-elect” despite losing the “popular vote (AND!… MORE IMPORTANTLY!… DESPITE HAVING E-V-E-N L-E-S-S THAN HILLARY’S ‘U-N-D-E-M-O-C-R-A-T-I-C N-O-N_P-L-U-R-A-L-I-T-Y’!)”, was, A S-H-O-C-K T-O T-H-E C-O-R-E O-F D-E-M-O-C-R-A-C-Y”!… A-N-D T-O R-A-T-I-O-N-A-L P-O-L-I-T-I-C-A-L D-I-S-C-O-U-R-S-E! And the situation is reminiscent of the controversial 2000 Presidential race between George W. Bush and Al Gore!… in which Gore won the “popular vote”, but, Bush was elected President!
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    Under the U.S Constitution, until the designated Electors of the Electoral College assemble (and in this present process, on December 19th!) in their state capitals to place in their votes… followed by a meeting of Congress (and in this present process, on January 6th) to affirm the result!… things are still not fully settled! In most of the country, it’s a “winner-takes-all” system: whoever wins a state’s “popular vote” is awarded all the Electoral votes for that state! The catch is, that these votes are based on a state’s number of Senators and House Representatives!… so, they vary from state to state (i.e., such deny equal protections and equal benefits before, and under the law, by virtue of the very existence of this state-to-state apparatus!)! It’s more important to win states with a high proportion of Electoral Votes– like Trump taking Wisconsin, and Florida!– than to receive the most votes overall! November 8th’s U.S. vote was– technically!– not to make Trump the next President, but, basically, to determine who the 538 Electors in the various states across the country will be! It is those Electors who will bear the responsibility of casting the votes that will “legally elect” the next U.S. President (i.e…. and presently!… on December 19th!)! And it is the reason, why… SO MANY!… are up in arms!
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    And so… this “mysterious victory” by Trump has reawakened… of course!… interest in, and has revived tactical approaches to, the elimination of the much criticized Electoral College! And… VEHEMENT CRITICISMS!… which are not only rife today, but which have flurished for decades!
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    And for example, David Boise… a lawyer who represented Gore, in Bush v. Gore, in 2000!… told the New York Times, that he considers the Electoral College a “historical anomaly”! And a view that has been echoed by millions online– at least!– since 2000!… and, by millions more, since November 8th!
    .
    Challenging the Electoral College based on a “Constitutional imperative” to peg the Electoral College to the “Principles of Democracy”, is as an important a consideration for those desiring an end to the Electoral College, as it is for those desiring the beginning of DEMOCRATIC PLURALITIES! If the T-R-U-E “Principles of Democracy” are said (IN A SOUND COURT OF LAW!) to necessitate the B-I-N-D-I-N-G A-D-H-E-R-E-N-C-E of governments to the “popular decisions” of an electorate (re A-N-Y E-L-E-M-E-N-T that would portend an electorate’s governance!… e.g., the Electoral College!)”, then, a Constitutional Challenge (and Tort challenge!) against an ENTRENCHED MARGINALIZATION (e.g., by way of the Electoral College!) of an electorate’s “popular vote (BUT YEA, A ‘POPULAR VOTE’ THAT IS A ‘T-R-U-E PLURALITY’!)” through a “S-L-I-G-H-T O-F H-A-N-D” and “E-N-D R-U-N” around the “principles of Democracy”, would go a long way toward “EXPOSING” what these mechanisms have been– and are!– all about! And!… MOST IMPORTANTLY!… would reveal the veracity (or lack, thereof!) of the claims in support, of the Electoral College! The bottom line, is!… ANY ATTEMPT TO UNDERMINE THE B-I-N-D-I-N-G OF THE “POPULAR EXPRESSION (YEA, ‘EXPRESSION OF PLURALITY’!)” TO A “POPULAR ELECTION”, BY WAY OF SOME “POLITICAL CIRCUMLOCUTORY OBFUSCATION (E.G., THE CLAIMS IN SUPPORT OF AN ‘ELECTORAL COLLEGE’!)”, SHOULD BE MADE SUBJECT TO CONSTITUTIONAL (AND TORT!) “JUDICIOUS ADJUDICATION”! AND SUCH “COLLEG(E)AL CIRCUMLOCUTORY OBFUSCATION”, SHOULD NOT BE MADE SYNONYMOUS WITH A “REASONED DEFINITION” OF WHAT CONSTITUTES THE T-R-U-E “PRINCIPLES OF DEMOCRACY”!
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    And!… the SOLUTION to the evils inhere within this nigh completed U.S. Election, is not to place emphasis on changing the pending vote of Electors comprising the Electoral College!… as is currently the case with the Lady gaga supported Change.org Petition (among others!)… but, on challenging– as indicated!– Constitutionally (and through Tort!), the inherent violation of the “Principles of Democracy (i.e., those respective of one’s Democratic Right to a DIRECT ELECTION, and to ‘One Voter, One Vote’!)” by way of the present UNCONSTITUTIONAL, AND TORTIOUS DEFERENCE to the Electoral College in the first place!… and, to its proffered final determination, of who becomes President!
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    In the face of the EVIDENCE that the U.S. Election System is a breach of the “Principles of Democracy”!… and that the process Americans have been about (i.e., involving the Electoral College– at least!) has been a SHAM!… a competent court of jurisdiction could just as easily turn around, and say:… “You know… you guys (Senators and Congressmen!) have been made WELL AWARE of the CLEAR CONSTITUTIONAL BREACHES inhere within the Electoral College! And so!… YOU ARE WITHOUT EXCUSE!… AND YOU ARE N-O-W O-B-L-I-G-E-D TO AMEND THE PROCESS F-O-R-T-H-W-I-T-H (and the stated conventions of the Amending Formula, NOTWITHSTANDING!… and, the present legislated Electoral College’s Electoral Conventions, NOTWITHSTANDING!)!!… TO INSTITUTE WHAT HAS BEEN CALLED FOR BY COUNTLESS JUDICIAL ADVOCATES, AND, BY SOUND JURIPRUDENCE!!”
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    Of course, the legal machinations to be pursued, depend on what’s being argued before the court, and on how well this is presented!… and– ultimately!– before the US Supreme Court! But!… and for God’s sake– if for no one else’s!… Senators and Congressmen (and America’s top legal minds!) have been made FULLY AWARE of the “Principles of Democracy”!… and have been made FULLY AWARE of the need to UPHOLD THE “DEMOCRATIC WILL” of the Electorate! And so… it’s not as if these learned political souls would be “blindsided” by a court’s decision, that these act… AND ACT NOW!… to remedy a centuries-old injustice! Adherence to a Constitutional Amending Formula is of less importance… as is adhering to the present legislated Electoral College’s Electoral Convention!… than adherence to the CORNERSTONE OF DEMOCRATIC RIGHTS!… THE CORNERSTONE OF DEMOCRACY! All a judge need say, is… “Cut the cr*p!… and get on with it!”
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    And thus!… concerned Americans– I believe!– must refocus their efforts… FULL EFFORTS!– AND FOREMOST!– ON SEEKING (N-O-W!) TO CONSTITUTIONALLY (AND THROUGH TORT!) TO UPHOLD THE “PRINCIPLES OF DEMOCRACY”! And although Americans are free… of course!… to join in on the lesser Petitions, the “B-E-T-T-E-R R-E-T-U-R-N” will be from the suggested LEGAL ACTIONS (and through– e.g.– “Crowd Funding”!), and the lesser efforts such as those of MoveOn.org!… and the like (i.e., on the “Abolitionist Petitions”!)! And!… inasmuch, as the present ILLEGAL DENIAL of DIRECT ELECTIONS, “One Voter, One Vote”, and the very existence of the Electoral College, I-S T-H-E C-E-N-T-R-A-L P-R-O-B-L-E-M!
    .
    To sum up… the “Equal Protection Clause” is part of the FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT to the United States Constitution! The clause… which took effect in 1868… provides, that no state shall deny to any person within its jurisdiction “the equal protection of the laws (and, I’ll add here, Equal Constitutional Protection re the application of the Constitution with respect to the state application of Electoral College Voting, and a state’s elections law that applies to a given Federal Election!)”!
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    A primary motivation for this clause was to validate the “equality provisions” contained in the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which guaranteed that ALL PEOPLE (and, I’ll add here, ALL AMERICAN VOTERS!… AND REGARDLESS OF THE STATE IN WHICH A VOTER RESIDES!) would have rights equal to those of ALL CITIZENS (e.g., whatever is afforded in one state pertaining to Electoral College voting, and a state’s elections law that applies to a given Federal Election, SHOULD BE AFFORDED TO ALL ITS CITIZENS!)! As a whole, the FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT marked a large shift in “American Constitutionalism”, BY APPLYING SUBSTANTIALLY MORE CONSTITUTIONAL RESTRICTIONS AGAINST THE STATES THAN HAD APPLIED BEFORE THE CIVIL WAR!
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    The meaning of the Equal Protection Clause has been the subject of much debate, and inspired the well-known phrase, “Equal Justice Under Law”! This clause was the basis for Brown v. Board of Education (1954)… the Supreme Court decision that helped to dismantle racial segregation!… and also, the basis for many other decisions REJECTING DISCRIMINATION AGAINST PEOPLE BELONGING TO VARIOUS GROUPS (e.g., state discrimination in its application of Electoral College voting, and it’s application of its elections law that applies to a given Federal Election, in comparison to the creation and the application of such, within the remaining states!… AND, WITH RESPECT TO THOSE DESIRING DIRECT ELECTIONS, AND “ONE VOTER, ONE VOTE”!)!
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    The Equal Protection Clause itself applies only to state and local governments (i.e., IT IS A SYSTEMIC STATE-TO-STATE BREACH OF EQUAL PROTECTION AND BENEFIT WHEN IT COMES TO ELECTORAL COLLEGE VOTING, AND A STATE’S CREATION AND APPLICATION OF ITS ELECTIONS LAW THAT APPLIES TO A GIVEN FEDERAL ELECTION!… LET ALONE, DIRECT ELECTIONS, AND “ONE VOTER, ONE VOTE” CONCERNS!)! However, the Supreme Court held in Bolling v. Sharpe (1954) that equal protection requirements within the FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT apply to the Federal Government through the “DUE PROCESS CLAUSE” of the FIFTH AMENDMENT (I.E., EQUAL PROTECTION AND BENEFIT REQUIREMENTS MUST APPLY STATE-TO-STATE!… BASED ON THE “DUE PROCESS CLAUSE” OF THE FIFTH AMENDMENT!… RE ANY ELECTORAL COLLEGE VOTING, THE CREATION AND APPLICATION OF ANY STATE ELECTION LAW THAT WOULD APPLY TO A GIVEN FEDERAL ELECTION, AND TO DIRECT ELECTIONS, AND “ONE VOTER, ONE VOTE”!)! (See, Equal Protection Clause, Wikipedia)
    .
    To cut to the chase… ELECTORAL COLLEGE VOTING, AND STATE ELECTION LAWS GOVERNING ANY GIVEN FEDERAL ELECTION BY WAY OF THE POWERS GRANTED STATES THROUGH ARTICLE II, SECTION 1 OF THE U.S. CONSTITUTION (WHICH GIVES THE STATES EXCLUSIVE CONTROL OVER AWARDING THEIR RESPECTIVE ELECTORAL VOTES!), ARE PRESENTLY IN BREACH OF THE “DUE PROCESS CLAUSE” OF THE FIFTH AMENDMENT OF THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION, IN THAT THESE D-E-N-Y EQUAL PROTECTION AND BENEFIT TO A-L-L C-I-T-I-Z-E-N-S IN THE STATES’ SCRIPTED CREATION AND APPLICATION OF ELECTORAL VOTES AND THE SCRIPTED “EFFECTATION (THROUGH A STATE’S ELECTIONS LAW!)” OF A FEDERAL ELECTION ON THE ONE HAND, AND WITH RESPECT TO THE FAILURE TO FACILITATE DIRECT ELECTIONS AND “ONE VOTER, ONE VOTE”, ON THE OTHER! AND THEREFORE, THE O-N-L-Y S-O-L-U-T-I-O-N THAT WILL END THIS STATE-TO-STATE DISCRIMINATION IN THE APPLICATION OF ELECTORAL COLLEGE VOTING, STATE ELECTION LAWS TO ANY GIVEN FEDERAL ELECTION, AND, DIRECT ELECTIONS AND “ONE VOTER, ONE VOTE”, IS THE ABANDONMENT OF BOTH ELECTORAL COLLEGE VOTING AND STATE ELECTIONS LAWS, IN FAVOR OF THE CREATION OF ONE FEDERAL DIRECT ELECTIONS “ONE VOTER, ONE VOTE” LAW, AND ELECTIONS PROCESS!
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    Your courts!… and your learned legal minds!… await your calls! And the sooner, the better!
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    Please!!… no emails!

    Like

  3. John Mayor says:

    A-M-E-R-I-C-A-N D-E-M-O-C-R-A-C-Y I-S D-E-A-D!
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    This nigh finished U.S. Federal Election, is a testament to the fact!… to the reality!… that American “Democracy”, is D-E-A-D! That is, if American “Democracy” E-V-E-R W-A-S a staple of American Politics!… of American Elections!
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    There are a few details that most wanna-be and would-be supporters of “D-E-M-O-C-R-A-C-Y” should be made aware of! And!… the question to be asked of American voters re this recent Election, is:… DID MOST AMERICANS ACTUALLY DESIRE A HILLARY… OR A DONALD!… ON E-I-T-H-E-R S-I-D-E OF THE POLITICAL SPECTRUM?
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    If I may!… I would like us to reflect on what’s really happened here!… and, on what really counts! Was this “democratic vote” more “P-S-E-U-D-O-D-E-M-O-C-R-A-T-I-C”, than not?… and!… did the “T-R-U-E M-A-J-O-R-I-T-Y” of the people of America find their “wills” reflected in this “democratic election”?… or!… were their “wills”– in fact, and in many cases!– N-O-W-H-E-R-E T-O B-E F-O-U-N-D?
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    Attention America!… newsflash!… Y-O-U D-O-N-‘-T A-C-T-U-A-L-L-Y V-O-T-E F-O-R Y-O-U-R P-R-E-S-I-D-E-N-T!! And “pseudodemocratizing” Presidential Elections has helped to MISLEAD you into believing that Presidential Elections are– PRIMARILY!– to reflect your WILL! Simply put!… T-H-E-Y D-O N-O-T!
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    A brief history of the Electoral College shows just how far the process of selecting the President of the United States has changed from the vision of the “Framers” of the U.S. Constitution… and, from the practices of the early years of the “REPUBLIC”! (For a Constitutional overview of the Electoral College, see, https://www.archives.gov/federal-register/electoral-college/provisions.html )
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    The Electoral College was inspired by the “College of Cardinals”!… which elects the Catholic Pope! Charles Carroll, of Carrollton… the only Catholic signer of the Declaration of Independence!… is credited with its creation! He had authored a distinctive provision in Maryland’s first Constitution, in 1776, that established a body of “popularly elected” “Electors”, who selected the state’s Senators!
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    In 1787, the “Constitutional Convention” adapted a provision, based on Maryland’s, as the basis of the Constitutional method for selecting the President! A key difference between the two, under the Constitutional Principle of “Federalism”, is that the “Electors” do not meet as a whole body, but separately in each state (and the District of Columbia) out of respect for state sovereignty! The expression, “Electoral College”, DOES NOT APPEAR IN THE CONSTITUTION AS A NAME FOR THIS INSTITUTION!… and rightly so, as the Presidential Elections are the collective work of 51 INDIVIDUAL BODIES!
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    Because of current practices for selecting the President, those who recognize that Electoral Votes are more than a kind of “point-scoring system” that evens out the weight of the states, such often think that the Presidential and Vice Presidential Electors (the members of what popularly became known as the Electoral College!) “check” the people! However, the history of their Offices reveals that Electors were intended more as “REPRESENTATIVES” of the people, and the states!
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    Indeed!… it’s A-L-L A-B-O-U-T “REPRESENTING” the People, and the States!
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    In creating Electors as the method of selecting the President, the Framers chose neither DIRECT POPULAR ELECTION (through “One Voter, One Vote”!), nor ELECTION BY THE CONGRESS (both methods, some had favored!)!… but– instead!– established a method that was “REPRESENTATIVE” of the people, and the states! Except for the later provision of Electors for the District of Columbia, the allocation of these Electors matches that of the combined number of members of both Chambers of Congress!
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    The number of “REPRESENTATIVES” in the House is based upon POPULATION!… because they are elected to “REPRESENT” the PEOPLE!… while an equal number of Senators “REPRESENTS” each state, in the Senate! Therefore, the size of the Electoral College is the result of a C-O-M-P-R-O-M-I-S-E, that– like the Congress!– balances population with “state equality”!… and!… in keeping with Federalism!
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    Similarly, the composition of the Electoral College helps prevent (so said!) the larger states from dominating the smaller ones! Beyond the composition of the Electoral College, the role of the states in choosing the “Presider” over the union of the states (i.e., the President!), is preserved through the power of state legislatures!… who choose the Electors, by whatever means they decide (and, even by way of making the office of Elector, “Elective”!)!
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    The Framers O-P-P-O-S-E-D DEMOCRACY (i.e., D-I-R-E-C-T R-U-L-E of the P-E-O-P-L-E!)!… preferring, “REPRESENTATIVE” R-E-P-U-B-L-I-C-A-N G-O-V-E-R-N-M-E-N-T! Membership in the House of Representatives was THE O-N-L-Y Constitutional Office the Framers established that was elected “P-O-P-U-L-A-R-L-Y”!… and the President, Vice President, and the Senators were, themselves, not DIRECTLY ELECTED under the original terms of the Constitution! Even the Offices of Presidential and Vice Presidential Electors were not necessarily “Elective”!… and!… could be “Appointive”!
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    Therefore, the only two Federal Offices the Framers established that c-o-u-l-d be Elective, were both “REPRESENTATIVE” in nature! Like Senators, state legislatures APPOINTED Electors to– primarily!– “REPRESENT” the states!… while “Elective Electors” are more “REPRESENTATIVE” of the people! Nevertheless, in both cases, the Electors (like Congress!… as a whole!) “REPRESENT” both the people, and the states!
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    In fact!… many Framers didn’t want a DEMOCRACY, A-T A-L-L!!
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    Like any “REPRESENTATIVES”, Presidential and Vice Presidential Electors are supposed to exercise their judgment (in good conscience!) about what is in the best interests of the Union, the states, and, the people! Since the method of selecting a President is not based– primarily!– on the “WILL OF THE PEOPLE”, an Elector who carries out one’s duty as a “REPRESENTATIVE”, is– thus!– not a “F-A-I-T-H-L-E-S-S E-L-E-C-T-O-R (as the longstanding expression goes!)”, but, a “F-A-I-T-H-F-U-L-L E-L-E-C-T-O-R”! That is to say!… one who has lived up to one’s “REPRESENTATIVE/ REPRESENTATIONAL ROLE”!
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    We can also observe this REPRESENTATIVE/ REPRESENTATIONAL ROLE of the Presidential and Vice Presidential Electors, in the state laws of the early period of the REPUBLIC, re the selection of these Electors! Some state legislatures opted, at first, to APPOINT their Presidential and Vice Presidential Electors!… others, allowing these to be “Popularly Elected”! A few, even alternated between “Presidential Elections”, to “Presidential Appointments”! Gradually, all of the states adopted “Popular Elections”!… but!… and with South Carolina as the last holdout!… the first “Presidential Election” in which all of the Electors were “P-O-P-U-L-A-R-L-Y E-L-E-C-T-E-D”, was in 1868!
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    However!… and for extraordinary reasons!… Electors have been APPOINTED on subsequent occasions!
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    States retain the power to set aside Electors’ Elections, even after they have been Elected!… and can Appoint them instead! Even though the states exercise their discretion to allow the “people” to Elect the Electors to “REPRESENT” them, it is important to remember, that this “REPRESENTATION” occurs, ONLY THROUGH THE POWER OF THE STATES!
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    In the “Federal Period”, the “people” DIRECTLY ELECTED the Electors who were not “Appointed”!… unlike the current practice, in which voters Elect them INDIRECTLY by casting ballots for Presidential and Vice Presidential Candidates, that count for an unnamed slate of Electors the Presidential Candidates have nominated! In some states… currently!… the ballot does not even mention that the Election is only for the Electors these Candidates have nominated!… which M-I-S-L-E-A-D-S people even more into believing they are voting DIRECTLY for the President, and the Vice President!
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    The REPRESENTATIONAL ROLE of the Electoral College was, thus, clearer in the ORIGINAL METHOD of DIRECT ELECTION, than today’s method (in which… today!… it is “popularly believed” that the Presidential Election is essentially a “democratic exercise”, and that the purpose of the Electors, is– mainly!– to even out the strength of the states!)!
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    Not only did these EARLY METHODS of selecting Presidential and Vice Presidential Electors emphasize their REPRESENTATIONAL ROLE, but common practices at the time, did as well! It is critical to understand, that in the first several decades of the American REPUBLIC, no one personally “Campaigned” for President, Vice President, or any other Political Office!… including, even Presidential and Vice Presidential Electors! The popular belief at the time, was that seeking Office would be arrogant!… as, “the Office seeks the man!… not the man, the office!”
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    The similarity between the Electoral College and the College of Cardinals was more noticeable back then!… as no one “publicly Campaigns” to be Elected Pope!… and the selection– today!– sometimes surprises the public, whenever a relatively less known person is selected! And there were especially no “Political Campaigns” in the EARLY REPUBLIC, in the modern sense of this expression!… save, informal public debate through conversations among the population, and the Political invocation of the “expressive freedom” of the “print press”! And it was not until 1840, that anyone personally “Campaigned” for President, or Vice President, of the United States!
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    Before the rise of “political parties”, there were– originally!– NO NAMES ON BALLOTS FOR “OFFICES”! There were only “write-in votes”! Later!… “parties” united behind “Candidates”, whose names were placed onto “Election Ballots”!… through changes, to Election Laws! Similarly!… at the Electoral College!… there were only “write-in votes” for President, and Vice President!
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    A reaction against the REPRESENTATIONAL ROLE of the Electoral College contributed to the foundation of the “Democratic Party”! In 1824, the Elective Presidential and Vice Presidential Electors for Andrew Jackson, and his “runningmate”, respectively won the “popular vote” among the four main Candidates! None of the Presidential Candidates won a majority in the Electoral College!… although, Jackson earned a PLURALITY! The House of Representatives elected John Quincy Adams!… whose Electors had earned the second most popular votes, and the second most votes in the Electoral College!
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    Jackson, and his supporters, believed that this deprived their Candidate of the Office that these believed that he had rightfully earned!… and so, the Democratic Party, was formed! As their party’s name implies, “Democrats” believed in making Elections more DEMOCRATIC, in various ways!… including, eliminating– or, at least, reducing!– the role of the Electoral College!
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    Although the “Democrats” did not eliminate the Electoral College altogether, after winning the 1828 Elections, they “democratized” Elections in other ways!… and advanced the trend away from the Framers’ original vision for Presidential and Vice Presidential Electors!… and especially, by– increasingly!– blurring the distinction between electing Electors, and electing the President and Vice President! The trends which have weakened the Electoral College’s REPRESENTATIONAL ROLE, were maintained when states made the “Office of Elector” ELECTIVE!… and BOUND Electors nominated by the Presidential and Vice Presidential Candidates, to vote for those Candidates (instead, of allowing the Electors to be “FREE” to exercise their OWN JUDGEMENT!)!
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    However!… this “democratization” only helped to MISLEAD the people into believing that Presidential Elections were– PRIMARILY!– supposed to reflect their WILL (and, because, many people perceived they were voting DIRECTLY for the Candidates for President and Vice President whose names appeared on the ballots!… but, instead, were only casting ballots for electors!)! Others!… who had at least some awareness of the Electoral College!… believed that they were INDIRECTLY ELECTING the President and Vice President by voting for the Presidential and Vice Presidential Candidates, who, would then– necessarily!– win the votes of the Electors from their states (since the Electors were nominated by the Presidential Candidates!), and were often bound to vote for them by state law!
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    However, contrary to common parlance and belief, unless one is an Elector, or U.S. REPRESENTATIVE, N-O O-N-E V-O-T-E-S F-O-R P-R-E-S-I-D-E-N-T A-N-D V-I-C-E P-R-E-S-I-D-E-N-T! No “Presidential ticket” receives any “POPULAR VOTES”! As envisioned by the Framers, a person need not personally Campaign!… be named on any ballot!… and receive any “popular votes”, for members of the Electoral College to elect him, or her, President of the United States! These Electoral College members, themselves, are not– necessarily!– ELECTED!… or!… even if they were, these need not have personally Campaigned for Office… and!… these need not have appeared on any ballot!
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    Although the Electoral College is “PERCEIVED” nowadays as a “check” on the “popular will”, the origin and early history of this institution suggests the Presidential Election was never intended to be, primarily, a “D-E-M-O-C-R-A-T-I-C E-X-E-R-C-I-S-E”!… but, rather, an exercise in REPRESENTATIVE/ REPRESENTATIONAL R-E-P-U-B-L-I-C-A-N G-O-V-E-R-N-A-N-C-E! And so… restoring the role of the Electors as REPRESENTATIVES of the states, and the people, would NOT usurp the HISTORIC VIEW of the WILL of the people!… but, instead, would return Americans to the “vision” of the Framers of the U.S. Constitution! The problem, though, is that such a move would be W-H-O-L-L-Y U-N-D-E-M-O-C-R-A-T-I-C!… AND!… W-O-U-L-D P-E-R-P-E-T-U-A-T-E T-H-E P-O-L-I-T-I-C-A-L A-B-U-S-E O-F T-H-E E-L-E-C-T-O-R-A-T-E, B-Y “R-E-P-U-B-L-I-C-A-N_M-I-N-D-E-D O-L-I-G-A-R-C-H-S”!
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    But!… however DIABOLIC one might perceive the present Electoral College to be to the “Principals of Democracy”, none of this compares to the DIABOLIC nature inhere within “democracies (so-called!)” which adhere to DIRECT ELECTIONS, and which have adopted a “One Voter, One Vote” system to elect Candidates into Office! And I’ll demonstrate this, by revealing the I-N-S-A-N-I-T-Y that was, the Brexit vs Bremain referendum!
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    How is it “DEMOCRATIC”– e.g.!– when the Brexit Referendum “win” of Thursday, June 23rd, 2016, was “won” W-I-T-H-O-U-T the E-S-S-E-N-T-I-A-L M-I-N-I-M-U-M of 50+% of the T-O-T-A-L N-U-M-B-E-R of ELIGIBLE BRITISH VOTERS’ VOTES?… AND!… NOT JUST, BY WAY OF A MAJORITY OF THOSE WHO’VE DECIDED TO CAST A VOTE! In other words, how can L-E-S-S than the E-S-S-E-N-T-I-A-L M-I-N-I-M-U-M of 50+% of the T-O-T-A-L N-U-M-B-E-R of eligible British voters’ votes, constitute a “D-E-M-O-C-R-A-T-I-C P-L-U-R-A-L-I-T-Y”? It is– de facto!– I-M-P-O-S-S-I-B-L-E (i.e., without God!)! And thus, the Brexit vote is a further example of a “P-S-E-U-D-O-D-E-M-O-C-R-A-T-I-C P-S-E-U-D-O-P-L-U-R-A-L-I-T-Y” “winning the day”!
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    To compare the Brexit Referendum to an election of a Candidate within a Electoral District… if fifty thousand eligible voters decide not to vote in a District that is composed/ comprised of one hundred thousand eligible voters… and five Candidates are running!… the math would suggest, that no Candidate could possibly obtain a “D-E-M-O-C-R-A-T-I-C P-L-U-R-A-L-I-T-Y” from the remaining fifty thousand eligible voters who have cast a vote! Unless!… and of course!… A H-I-J-A-C-K-E-D, AND E-L-I-T-I-S-T P-O-L-I-T-I-C-A-L P-R-O-C-E-S-S SIMPLY MARGINALIZES THOSE WHO HAVE NOT SHOWN UP TO VOTE; AND, THEN, DICTATES THAT THEIR “NO SHOW”/ ABSENCE, CANNOT– AND SHOULD NOT!– BE HELD “B-I-N-D-I-N-G” IN SOME FASHION, OR FORM (AND SOME “NO SHOWS” ARE AS SUCH, DUE TO DISABILITY, AND/ OR INFIRMITY!… NOT TO MENTION, THOSE WHO HAVE BEEN SYSTEMICALLY AND SYSTEMATICALLY DISCRIMINATED AGAINST, DUE TO THEIR Y-O-U-T-H!)! FOR!… OUT OF SIGHT, IS OUT OF MIND!
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    Simply put!… and to return to the Brexit Referendum!… the said total of 17,410,742. “winning” “pro Brexit” British voters, plus the said total of 16,141,242. “losing” “pro Bremain” eligible British voters, who– together!– showed up at the “Referendum ballot boxes (i.e., 33,551,984 eligible British voters!)”, are in contrast to the ACTUAL TOTAL of 46,499,537 eligible British voters (see Google result, Electoral Commission | Provisional electorate figures published!… AND, LET ALONE, THE EVEN HIGHER ACTUAL TOTAL NUMBER OF ELIGIBLE VOTERS’ VOTES TO BE HAD, IF MANY OF THE DISABLED/ INFIRMED BRITISH CITIZENS WERE “ACCOMMODATED”!… AND!… IF MANY BRITISH YOUTH WEREN’T THE TARGETS OF “P-O-L-I-T-I-C-A-L A-N-D S-O-C-I-A-L P-A-T-E-R-N-A-L-I-S-T-I-C A-G-E-I-S-M”!)!… and reveals a deficit of 12,947,553. of the ACTUAL TOTAL NUMBER of eligible British voters, and a deficit of 5,839,027. eligible British voters for even a “B-A-R-E M-I-N-I-M-U-M M-A-J-O-R-I-T-Y W-I-N (i.e., 46,499,537. ÷ 2 = 23,249,768.5… + .5 = [23,249,769.] – 17,410,742. = 5,839,027.!)”! AND THEREFORE, THE COMBINED “WINNERS” AND “LOSERS” TALLY OF ELIGIBLE VOTERS, S-H-O-U-L-D N-O-T B-E M-A-D-E S-Y-N-O-N-Y-M-O-U-S W-I-T-H T-H-E A-C-T-U-A-L T-O-T-A-L- N-U-M-B-E-R O-F E-L-I-G-I-B-L-E B-R-I-T-I-S-H V-O-T-E-R-S/ V-O-T-E-S!… AND!… THE “WINNING TALLY”, S-H-O-U-L-D N-O-T B-E M-A-D-E S-Y-N-O-N-Y-M-O-U-S W-I-T-H T-H-E “M-A-J-O-R-I-T-Y W-I-L-L” O-F T-H-E E-L-I-G-I-B-L-E V-O-T-E-R-S O-F B-R-I-T-A-I-N! AND!… THEREFORE!… THE “WINNING TALLY” OF ELIGIBLE BRITISH VOTERS– AT LEAST!– SHOULD BE MET WITH A C-O-N-S-T-I-T-U-T-I-O-N-A-L (AND TORT!) C-H-A-L-L-E-N-G-E (TO START!) FOR THE F-L-A-G-R-A-N-T B-R-E-A-C-H OF THE “L-E-G-I-T-I-M-A-T-E” “P-R-I-N-C-I-P-L-E-S” O-F D-E-M-O-C-R-A-C-Y (I.E., AND E.G., IN THE F-A-I-L-U-R-E OF THE BREXIT REFERENDUM RESULT TOTAL, TO ACHIEVE EVEN A B-A-R-E M-I-N-I-M-U-M M-A-J-O-R-I-T-Y T-A-L-L-Y, FOR A ‘M-A-J-O-R-I-T-Y W-I-N’!)”!
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    And so!… the Brexit “win”… like the “wins” seen so often in our PSEUDODEMOCRATIC PSEUDOELECTIONS (AND EVEN IN ELECTIONS WHEREIN “PLURALITY WINS”– E.G., IN AMERICA!– MIGHT BE FAVORED OVER ELECTORAL COLLEGE “WINS”!)!… I-S A S-H-A-M!! And!… it escapes me, why “plurality-driven citizens” from respective “democracies (so-called!)” from around the world, haven’t challenged these scurrilous, and shameful “F-A-U-X P-U-B-L-I-C R-E-F-E-R-E-N-D-A”!… AND PSEUDOELECTIONS!… AND!… haven’t brought civil proceedings against any and all institutions, which have allowed these G-L-O-B-A-L F-A-R-C-E-S to continue! And thus… re the Brexit Referendum result!… it’s my contention, that the Brexit Referendum is defeatable, due to it’s inherent S-Y-S-T-E-M-I-C V-I-O-L-A-T-I-O-N of the “L-E-G-I-T-I-M-A-T-E” “PRINCIPLES OF DEMOCRACY”!
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    This horrendous situation involving our PSEUDODEMOCRATIC PSEUDOELECTIONS, has resulted in “winning Candidates” winning (if, indeed, Pluralities are recognized!) with as little as 1/5th of the total number of eligible voters’ votes!… AND!… THEN DARING, TO CALL SUCH RESPECTIVE “WINS”, D-E-M-O-C-R-A-T-I-C! A-N-D W-O-R-S-E!… and in the case of the Brexit Referendum result (AND “PSEUDOWIN”!)!… such a “W-I-N” could– POTENTIALLY!– C-O-M-P-R-O-M-I-Z-E T-H-E S-E-C-U-R-I-T-Y O-F A-N E-N-T-I-R-E N-A-T-I-O-N! And so!… it’s no wonder why so many citizens within our respective “democracies (so-called!)” hate the elections process!… and!… hate, Public Referenda!
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    And!… to add Elections insult to Elections injury, there are “Parties” within countries… and again, composed of “winning Candidates” who have “won” with L-E-S-S than the E-S-S-E-N-T-I-A-L M-I-N-I-M-U-M needed for a “D-E-M-O-C-R-A-T-I-C P-L-U-R-A-L-I-T-Y”!… whose leadership cannot be chosen D-E-M-O-C-R-A-T-I-C-A-L-L-Y by the PEOPLE (e.g., in Canada!)!… and O-N-L-Y, by the Party (although, this is not to detract from the serious failings of the Elections Process in America, in the selection of America’s President!)! And further, rather than have the brightest!… the best!… “winning Candidates” from all across a country– and, from across a legislature’s floor!– forming Executive Cabinets (and in Canada– e.g.– composed of Ministers of Federal Departments, or Provincial Ministries!)!… A-N-D T-H-R-O-U-G-H A N-O-N P-A-R-T-Y_B-A-S-E-D L-E-G-I-S-L-A-T-U-R-E O-R P-A-R-L-I-A-M-E-N-T (and something, incidentally, that municipalities have been doing for generations!… A-N-D, W-O-R-L-D-W-I-D-E)!… our current “PARTY-BASED DEMOCRACIES” have chosen, instead– A-N-D V-I-R-T-U-A-L-L-Y!– GANGS, CLIQUES, AND “P-S-E-U-D-O-S-O-C-I-A-L I-N-T-E-R-E-S-T-S”, TO ACT AS “GO-BETWEENS” FOR PARTY-BASED “OLIGARCHIC BACKROOM BOYZ”!
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    But!… if all of this wasn’t bad enough, there’s no “NONE OF THE ABOVE” option on millions of voters’ ballots (AND “B-I-N-D-I-N-G”!… AS A PREREQUISITE!)!… nor, an “AUTOMATIC TRANSLATION” of the “NO SHOWS (i.e., eligible voters who have NOT cast a vote!)” to “B-I-N-D-I-N-G” “NONE OF THE ABOVE BALLOTS (inasmuch, as such ‘NO SHOWS’, can’t be translated as being ‘F-O-R’, any Candidate!)”! (BUT!… PLEASE NOTE!… IF OUR “NO SHOWS” AS SUCH, ARE DUE TO OUR P-O-L-I-T-I-C-A-L A-N-D S-O-C-I-A-L I-N-A-B-I-L-I-T-Y– O-R, U-N-W-I-L-L-I-N-G-N-E-S-S!– TO ADDRESS THE VOTER NEEDS OF OUR DISABLED/ INFIRMED!… AND, OUR YOUTH!… THEN SUCH “INABLED”, OR “UNWILLING”, SHOULD BE “H-E-L-P-E-D” RE THEIR “I-N-A-B-I-L-T-Y”!… OR H-E-L-D T-O A-C-C-O-U-N-T FOR THEIR “U-N-W-I-L-L-I-N-G-N-E-S-S”!) And!… had the “NONE OF THE ABOVE” and the “TRANSLATED NO SHOW” provisions been addressed, many “NO SHOWS” would have shown up to vote (for fear of receiving a MANADATED “BINDING” “AUTOMATIC TRANSLATION”!)! And!… if combined “NO SHOW TRANSLATIONS”, together with directly cast “NONE OF THE ABOVE BALLOTS” were implemented (wherein– TOGETHER!– these OUTNUMBER the votes cast for any respective “running Candidate”!), this combined tally could have meant the introduction of “lottery lists” of Candidates within respective Districts (preselected!… and the members in which, would not be eligible to run as “running Candidates”!)!… from which, our “winners” could have then been chosen! And thereby!… E-F-F-E-C-T-I-N-G F-U-L-L R-E-P-R-E-S-E-N-T-A-T-I-O-N F-O-R E-V-E-R-Y S-I-N-G-L-E E-L-I-G-I-B-L-E V-O-T-E-R, A-N-D V-O-T-E!
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    And!… to juxtapose the just aforesaid template onto Referenda!… and onto the Brexit Referendum, in particular!… if the directly cast “NONE OF THE ABOVE BALLOTS”, combined with the “TRANSLATED NO SHOWS”, OUTWEIGHED the votes cast for either the Brexit or Bremain scenarios, then NEITHER Brexit, nor Bremain, would be– DEMOCRATICALLY!– left on the table! And the MPs of the British Parliament, would then be forced to renew their respective individual approaches, and collective approach, re their “arrangement” with the EU!… and, their respective dialogues, and collective dialogue, with the citizens of Britain!
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    And given… and in contrast to the abovenoted!… in the light of the process that was implementated for the Brexit Referendum (though, yet to be revealed “officially”!)!… WELL!… you have the makings of a P-O-O-R E-X-C-U-S-E F-O-R A D-E-M-O-C-R-A-T-I-C R-E-F-E-R-E-N-D-U-M!… A-N-D A P-O-O-R “R-A-T-I-O-N-A-L B-A-S-I-S” F-O-R T-H-E R-E-D-I-R-E-C-T-I-O-N O-F T-H-E F-U-T-U-R-E C-O-U-R-S-E F-O-R A-N E-N-T-I-R-E C-O-U-N-T-R-Y!!
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    And so… what we have, presently, are “P-S-E-U-D-O-D-E-M-O-C-R-A-T-I-C P-L-U-R-A-L-I-T-I-E-S (IF EVEN THESE CAN BE ACHIEVED!… E.G., IN AMERICA!)” IN THE G-U-I-S-E OF “D-E-M-O-C-R-A-T-I-C-A-L-L-Y E-L-E-C-T-E-D” CANDIDATES! An intolerable situation!… and deserving of both Constitutional challenges, and Tort action! And!… A-N-Y O-T-H-E-R ACCEPTED PLURALITY OTHER THAN A “D-E-M-O-C-R-A-T-I-C P-L-U-R-A-L-I-T-Y” ACCEPTED BY A PROSPECTIVE CANDIDATE, AND/ OR BY A PROSPECTIVE VOTER (AND BASED UPON THE “L-E-G-I-T-I-M-A-T-E” “PRINCIPLES OF DEMOCRACY”, AS AFOREMENTIONED!… AND OTHER, THAN ONE INSTITUTED BY GOD!)!, IS A CANDIDATE, OR VOTER, WHO IS EITHER BLIND TO THE “LEGITIMATE” “PRINCIPLES OF DEMOCRACY”, OR WHO IS A TRAITOR TO THE “LEGITIMATE” “PRINCIPLES OF DEMOCRACY”! AND!… WHO IS EITHER BLIND, OR A TRAITOR, TO THE COMMON GOOD OF THE PEOPLE!
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    THEREFORE, THE “J-U-S-T ESTABLISHMENT” OF “T-R-U-E DEMOCRATIC PLURALITIES” WITHIN OUR RESPECTIVE REFERENDA, AND ELECTIONS PROCESSES, IS F-U-N-D-A-M-E-N-T-A-L TO THE VERY REALIZATION OF “D-E-M-O-C-R-A-C-Y”!… AND!… WITHOUT WHICH, WE ARE SUBJECT TO MERE OLIGARCHIC WHIM!
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    But moreover… and in a cursory examination the outrageous “tentative results” of this nigh past U.S. Election!… at the base of the present reality of the abysmal failure the U.S. “Electoral System” to achieve a “D-E-M-O-C-R-A-T-I-C P-L-U-R-A-L-I-T-Y”, is its failure to facilitate the E-S-S-E-N-T-I-A-L D-E-M-O-C-R-A-T-I-C R-E-Q-U-I-R-E-M-E-N-T of a “D-I-R-E-C-T E-L-E-C-T-I-O-N”, through a “O-N-E V-O-T-E-R, O-N-E V-O-T-E” Elections System (LET ALONE, THE NEED TO FACILITATE– A-N-D T-O B-I-N-D!– “NONE OF THE ABOVE BALLOT OPTIONS”, AND TO TRANSLATE ALL “NO SHOWS” TO “NONE OF THE ABOVE”!)! Opting, instead, for an U-N-D-E-M-O-C-R-A-T-I-C Electoral College!… with Electors, and INDIRECT Electoral Votes!
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    Consequently… and given the astounding and perverse “win” by Donald Trump– due to the Electoral College– in part!… numerous Petitions have now emerged online– at least!– to challenge, and to eliminate the Electoral College! To many– and I suggest, MOST!– Americans, Trump becoming the “President-elect” despite losing the “popular vote (AND!… MORE IMPORTANTLY!… DESPITE HAVING E-V-E-N L-E-S-S THAN HILLARY’S ‘U-N-D-E-M-O-C-R-A-T-I-C N-O-N_P-L-U-R-A-L-I-T-Y’!)”, was, A S-H-O-C-K T-O T-H-E C-O-R-E O-F D-E-M-O-C-R-A-C-Y”!… A-N-D T-O R-A-T-I-O-N-A-L P-O-L-I-T-I-C-A-L D-I-S-C-O-U-R-S-E! And the situation is reminiscent of the controversial 2000 Presidential race between George W. Bush and Al Gore!… in which Gore won the “popular vote”, but, Bush was elected President!
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    Under the U.S Constitution, until the designated Electors of the Electoral College assemble (and in this present process, on December 19th!) in their state capitals to place in their votes… followed by a meeting of Congress (and in this present process, on January 6th) to affirm the result!… things are still not fully settled! In most of the country, it’s a “winner-takes-all” system: whoever wins a state’s “popular vote” is awarded all the Electoral votes for that state! The catch is, that these votes are based on a state’s number of Senators and House Representatives!… so, they vary from state to state (i.e., such deny equal protections and equal benefits before, and under the law, by virtue of the very existence of this state-to-state apparatus!)! It’s more important to win states with a high proportion of Electoral Votes– like Trump taking Wisconsin, and Florida!– than to receive the most votes overall! November 8th’s U.S. vote was– technically!– not to make Trump the next President, but, basically, to determine who the 538 Electors in the various states across the country will be! It is those Electors who will bear the responsibility of casting the votes that will “legally elect” the next U.S. President (i.e…. and presently!… on December 19th!)! And it is the reason, why… SO MANY!… are up in arms!
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    And so… this “mysterious victory” by Trump has reawakened… of course!… interest in, and has revived tactical approaches to, the elimination of the much criticized Electoral College! And… VEHEMENT CRITICISMS!… which are not only rife today, but which have flurished for decades!
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    And for example, David Boise… a lawyer who represented Gore, in Bush v. Gore, in 2000!… told the New York Times, that he considers the Electoral College a “historical anomaly”! And a view that has been echoed by millions online– at least!– since 2000!… and, by millions more, since November 8th!
    .
    Challenging the Electoral College based on a “Constitutional imperative” to peg the Electoral College to the “Principles of Democracy”, is as an important a consideration for those desiring an end to the Electoral College, as it is for those desiring the beginning of DEMOCRATIC PLURALITIES! If the T-R-U-E “Principles of Democracy” are said (IN A SOUND COURT OF LAW!) to necessitate the B-I-N-D-I-N-G A-D-H-E-R-E-N-C-E of governments to the “popular decisions” of an electorate (re A-N-Y E-L-E-M-E-N-T that would portend an electorate’s governance!… e.g., the Electoral College!)”, then, a Constitutional Challenge (and Tort challenge!) against an ENTRENCHED MARGINALIZATION (e.g., by way of the Electoral College!) of an electorate’s “popular vote (BUT YEA, A ‘POPULAR VOTE’ THAT IS A ‘T-R-U-E PLURALITY’!)” through a “S-L-I-G-H-T O-F H-A-N-D” and “E-N-D R-U-N” around the “principles of Democracy”, would go a long way toward “EXPOSING” what these mechanisms have been– and are!– all about! And!… MOST IMPORTANTLY!… would reveal the veracity (or lack, thereof!) of the claims in support, of the Electoral College! The bottom line, is!… ANY ATTEMPT TO UNDERMINE THE B-I-N-D-I-N-G OF THE “POPULAR EXPRESSION (YEA, ‘EXPRESSION OF PLURALITY’!)” TO A “POPULAR ELECTION”, BY WAY OF SOME “POLITICAL CIRCUMLOCUTORY OBFUSCATION (E.G., THE CLAIMS IN SUPPORT OF AN ‘ELECTORAL COLLEGE’!)”, SHOULD BE MADE SUBJECT TO CONSTITUTIONAL (AND TORT!) “JUDICIOUS ADJUDICATION”! AND SUCH “COLLEG(E)AL CIRCUMLOCUTORY OBFUSCATION”, SHOULD NOT BE MADE SYNONYMOUS WITH A “REASONED DEFINITION” OF WHAT CONSTITUTES THE T-R-U-E “PRINCIPLES OF DEMOCRACY”!
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    And!… the SOLUTION to the evils inhere within this nigh completed U.S. Election, is not to place emphasis on changing the pending vote of Electors comprising the Electoral College!… as is currently the case with the Lady gaga supported Change.org Petition (among others!)… but, on challenging– as indicated!– Constitutionally (and through Tort!), the inherent violation of the “Principles of Democracy (i.e., those respective of one’s Democratic Right to a DIRECT ELECTION, and to ‘One Voter, One Vote’!)” by way of the present UNCONSTITUTIONAL, AND TORTIOUS DEFERENCE to the Electoral College in the first place!… and, to its proffered final determination, of who becomes President!
    .
    In the face of the EVIDENCE that the U.S. Election System is a breach of the “Principles of Democracy”!… and that the process Americans have been about (i.e., involving the Electoral College– at least!) has been a SHAM!… a competent court of jurisdiction could just as easily turn around, and say:… “You know… you guys (Senators and Congressmen!) have been made WELL AWARE of the CLEAR CONSTITUTIONAL BREACHES inhere within the Electoral College! And so!… YOU ARE WITHOUT EXCUSE!… AND YOU ARE N-O-W O-B-L-I-G-E-D TO AMEND THE PROCESS F-O-R-T-H-W-I-T-H (and the stated conventions of the Amending Formula, NOTWITHSTANDING!… and, the present legislated Electoral College’s Electoral Conventions, NOTWITHSTANDING!)!!… TO INSTITUTE WHAT HAS BEEN CALLED FOR BY COUNTLESS JUDICIAL ADVOCATES, AND, BY SOUND JURIPRUDENCE!!”
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    Of course, the legal machinations to be pursued, depend on what’s being argued before the court, and on how well this is presented!… and– ultimately!– before the US Supreme Court! But!… and for God’s sake– if for no one else’s!… Senators and Congressmen (and America’s top legal minds!) have been made FULLY AWARE of the “Principles of Democracy”!… and have been made FULLY AWARE of the need to UPHOLD THE “DEMOCRATIC WILL” of the Electorate! And so… it’s not as if these learned political souls would be “blindsided” by a court’s decision, that these act… AND ACT NOW!… to remedy a centuries-old injustice! Adherence to a Constitutional Amending Formula is of less importance… as is adhering to the present legislated Electoral College’s Electoral Convention!… than adherence to the CORNERSTONE OF DEMOCRATIC RIGHTS!… THE CORNERSTONE OF DEMOCRACY! All a judge need say, is… “Cut the cr*p!… and get on with it!”
    .
    And thus!… concerned Americans– I believe!– must refocus their efforts… FULL EFFORTS!– AND FOREMOST!– ON SEEKING (N-O-W!) TO CONSTITUTIONALLY (AND THROUGH TORT!) TO UPHOLD THE “PRINCIPLES OF DEMOCRACY”! And although Americans are free… of course!… to join in on the lesser Petitions, the “B-E-T-T-E-R R-E-T-U-R-N” will be from the suggested LEGAL ACTIONS (and through– e.g.– “Crowd Funding”!), and the lesser efforts such as those of MoveOn.org!… and the like (i.e., on the “Abolitionist Petitions”!)! And!… inasmuch, as the present ILLEGAL DENIAL of DIRECT ELECTIONS, “One Voter, One Vote”, and the very existence of the Electoral College, I-S T-H-E C-E-N-T-R-A-L P-R-O-B-L-E-M!
    .
    To sum up… the “Equal Protection Clause” is part of the FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT to the United States Constitution! The clause… which took effect in 1868… provides, that no state shall deny to any person within its jurisdiction “the equal protection of the laws (and, I’ll add here, Equal Constitutional Protection re the application of the Constitution with respect to the state application of Electoral College Voting, and a state’s elections law that applies to a given Federal Election!)”!
    .
    A primary motivation for this clause was to validate the “equality provisions” contained in the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which guaranteed that ALL PEOPLE (and, I’ll add here, ALL AMERICAN VOTERS!… AND REGARDLESS OF THE STATE IN WHICH A VOTER RESIDES!) would have rights equal to those of ALL CITIZENS (e.g., whatever is afforded in one state pertaining to Electoral College voting, and a state’s elections law that applies to a given Federal Election, SHOULD BE AFFORDED TO ALL ITS CITIZENS!)! As a whole, the FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT marked a large shift in “American Constitutionalism”, BY APPLYING SUBSTANTIALLY MORE CONSTITUTIONAL RESTRICTIONS AGAINST THE STATES THAN HAD APPLIED BEFORE THE CIVIL WAR!
    .
    The meaning of the Equal Protection Clause has been the subject of much debate, and inspired the well-known phrase, “Equal Justice Under Law”! This clause was the basis for Brown v. Board of Education (1954)… the Supreme Court decision that helped to dismantle racial segregation!… and also, the basis for many other decisions REJECTING DISCRIMINATION AGAINST PEOPLE BELONGING TO VARIOUS GROUPS (e.g., state discrimination in its application of Electoral College voting, and it’s application of its elections law that applies to a given Federal Election, in comparison to the creation and the application of such, within the remaining states!… AND, WITH RESPECT TO THOSE DESIRING DIRECT ELECTIONS, AND “ONE VOTER, ONE VOTE”!)!
    .
    The Equal Protection Clause itself applies only to state and local governments (i.e., IT IS A SYSTEMIC STATE-TO-STATE BREACH OF EQUAL PROTECTION AND BENEFIT WHEN IT COMES TO ELECTORAL COLLEGE VOTING, AND A STATE’S CREATION AND APPLICATION OF ITS ELECTIONS LAW THAT APPLIES TO A GIVEN FEDERAL ELECTION!… LET ALONE, DIRECT ELECTIONS, AND “ONE VOTER, ONE VOTE” CONCERNS!)! However, the Supreme Court held in Bolling v. Sharpe (1954) that equal protection requirements within the FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT apply to the Federal Government through the “DUE PROCESS CLAUSE” of the FIFTH AMENDMENT (I.E., EQUAL PROTECTION AND BENEFIT REQUIREMENTS MUST APPLY STATE-TO-STATE!… BASED ON THE “DUE PROCESS CLAUSE” OF THE FIFTH AMENDMENT!… RE ANY ELECTORAL COLLEGE VOTING, THE CREATION AND APPLICATION OF ANY STATE ELECTION LAW THAT WOULD APPLY TO A GIVEN FEDERAL ELECTION, AND TO DIRECT ELECTIONS, AND “ONE VOTER, ONE VOTE”!)! (See, Equal Protection Clause, Wikipedia)
    .
    To cut to the chase… ELECTORAL COLLEGE VOTING, AND STATE ELECTION LAWS GOVERNING ANY GIVEN FEDERAL ELECTION BY WAY OF THE POWERS GRANTED STATES THROUGH ARTICLE II, SECTION 1 OF THE U.S. CONSTITUTION (WHICH GIVES THE STATES EXCLUSIVE CONTROL OVER AWARDING THEIR RESPECTIVE ELECTORAL VOTES!), ARE PRESENTLY IN BREACH OF THE “DUE PROCESS CLAUSE” OF THE FIFTH AMENDMENT OF THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION, IN THAT THESE D-E-N-Y EQUAL PROTECTION AND BENEFIT TO A-L-L C-I-T-I-Z-E-N-S IN THE STATES’ SCRIPTED CREATION AND APPLICATION OF ELECTORAL VOTES AND THE SCRIPTED “EFFECTATION (THROUGH A STATE’S ELECTIONS LAW!)” OF A FEDERAL ELECTION ON THE ONE HAND, AND WITH RESPECT TO THE FAILURE TO FACILITATE DIRECT ELECTIONS AND “ONE VOTER, ONE VOTE”, ON THE OTHER! AND THEREFORE, THE O-N-L-Y S-O-L-U-T-I-O-N THAT WILL END THIS STATE-TO-STATE DISCRIMINATION IN THE APPLICATION OF ELECTORAL COLLEGE VOTING, STATE ELECTION LAWS TO ANY GIVEN FEDERAL ELECTION, AND, DIRECT ELECTIONS AND “ONE VOTER, ONE VOTE”, IS THE ABANDONMENT OF BOTH ELECTORAL COLLEGE VOTING AND STATE ELECTIONS LAWS, IN FAVOR OF THE CREATION OF ONE FEDERAL DIRECT ELECTIONS “ONE VOTER, ONE VOTE” LAW, AND ELECTIONS PROCESS!
    .
    Your courts!… and your learned legal minds!… await your calls! And the sooner, the better!!
    .
    Please!… no emails!

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